The chronically ill group chosen for this project is the cancer patients. The reason why cancer was chosen is because it is one of the leading killers in the world at an estimated eight million deaths per year. Globally, estimated populations of fourteen million people are usually diagnosed with cancer every year. (IHartmann, Loprinzi & Mayo Clinic, 2012, pg 5). Below is a report whose main aim is to create a plan of care for the cancer patients.
The assignments from the previous weeks played a major role in helping in the development of the care plan. The first assignment which was on the identification of the illness helped in the grasping of what the illness is all about that is in terms of the signs and symptoms. The second assignment was on the impact of the disease. This helped in showing how the disease can affect an individual and this provides perfect grounds of planning how to deal with such individuals. The third assignment which was on support need analysis of cancer patients helped in the drafting of an efficient nursing action and intervention. The fourth assignment was on resources available for the people suffering from cancer. This was crucial and helpful in the drafting of assessment data to be used in diagnoses since for the assessment data to be collected, these resources must be available to aid in the process of collecting the data.
A common sign diagnosed among most of the patients is usually fatigue. (Weis & Horneber, 2014, pg 20)
A number of tests are usually carried out and these tests are as follows.
Firstly, there is the endoscopy test is done to determine whether there are any abnormalities and this is done through the direct visualization of the internal body organs and cavities
Secondly, there is the carrying out of scans such as magnetic resonance imaging and this is done so as to identify metastasis and other diagnostic purposes
Thirdly, there is the biopsy test which may be taken from organs such as the bone marrow and the skin and the main function of this is to diagnose and delineate the treatment.
Fourthly, there is the using of screening chemistry tests such as electrolytes.
Fifthly, there is the counting of blood cells with the platelets and differential and this may be used to detect anemia, change in the blood cells or an increase in the number of platelets.
Sixthly, there is the conducting of chest x-rays to screen for possible diseases of the lung which can easily interfere with breathing.
Lastly, an interview is also conducted between the patient and the nurse.
After the interview, some data is collected and this data is the result of the fatigue
- The accumulation of cellular waste materials
- Difficulty of sleeping and resting
- Anemia, which causes tissue hypoxia.
- Nausea and anxiety.
- Disinterest in surroundings.
The most desired outcome is to minimize the fatigue and enable the cancer patients to take part in desired activities at their maximum level of ability
This is the criterion that was used in determining that the data collected is as a result of the fatigue and it is as follows;
The diagnosis of cancer and the chemotherapy treatments brings about overwhelming emotional demands which can easily bring about the fatigue.
The continuous and active growth of tumor combined with an increase in the amount of certain cytotoxins raises the metabolic rate which means that there is an increased use of energy in the body.
The medications used to control the pain have side effects which bring about the fatigue hence bringing about the nausea and anxiety.
The accumulation of cellular waste materials occurs as a result of the rapid breaking down of the normal and cancerous cells by cytotoxic drugs.
Difficulty of sleeping and resting occurs as a result of fear, anxiety and discomfort which come with the diagnosis of the disease.
The tissue hypoxia is as a result of anemia. The anemia is most likely caused by malnutrition and the suppression of bone marrow which is usually induced by the chemotherapy treatment. (Noogle, 2012, pg 420)
Actions and interventions
Once the fatigue has been diagnosed certain actions should be taken by the nurse and these are as follows;
Firstly, the symptoms and signs of fatigue should be assessed for and be determined whether or not they are present.
Secondly, the patients should be informed that the fatigue is as a result of the disease itself and the chemotherapy treatment
Thirdly, the patient should be aided to identify the pattern of fatigue and this is aimed at avoiding performing some activities during the greatest time of fatigue
Fourthly, there should be the Implementation of actions to minimize fatigue. Such actions include promoting a nutritional status that is adequate, administering anemia treatment as prescribed, facilitating the psychological adjustment of the patient to the diagnosis of the disease and the side effects of its treatment and also gradually increasing the patient’s activity as tolerated.
Lastly, if the signs and symptoms of fatigue continue to worsen, an appropriate health care provider should be consulted
Evaluation and intervention
Once the actions have been followed, the following will be used to assess whether the goals of the care plan have been reached
Firstly, the patients will be able to perform their usual activities of daily living as they used to perform before the illness.
Secondly, the patients will have an increase in the interest of their surroundings. Their level of concentration will also improve.
Thirdly, the patients will able to notice the feeling of their body experiencing an increase in the level of energy unlike before when they were experiencing the fatigue.
In conclusion, a care plan is effective in dealing with a diagnosis since it acts as an aid to a nurse in helping to determining and dealing with a certain diagnosis.
Hartmann, L. C., Loprinzi, C. L., & Mayo Clinic. (2012). The Mayo Clinic breast cancer book. Intercourse, PA: Good Books.
Weis, J,. & Horneber, M. (2014). Cancer related fatigue
Noogle, C. A. (2012). Neuropsychology of cancer and oncology. New York: Springer Pub.